What did they do?
What was the answer?
What did they say about the
What do I do with this
1. Were patients randomized?
2. Was randomization concealed?
3. Were patients analyzed in the
groups to which they were randomized?
4. Were patients in the treatment and
control groups similar with respect to known prognostic factors?
5. Were 5 important groups (patients,
caregivers, collectors of outcome data, adjudicators of outcome, data analysts)
aware of group allocation?
6. Aside from the experimental
intervention, were the groups treated equally?
7. Was follow-up complete?
1. How large was the treatment
2. How precise was the estimate of
the treatment effect?
1. Do the results of the study
support the author/s conclusions?
2. Does the conclusion reflect the
3. Are there study limitations, and
do these impact the conclusions?
4. Are potential discrepancies
1. Were the study patients similar to
2. Were all patient important
3. Are the likely benefits worth the
potential harms and costs?