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Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) refers to the simulation of human intelligence and awareness in machines that are programmed to think, judge, respond, and mimic humans and their actions (Frakenfield, 2022). It is commonly used by people to describe any piece of technology that mimics human learning and problem-solving skills.

Artificial intelligence is used across all industries and academic subjects. The term is used to describe everything from finding the best route on Apple and Google Maps, self-driving cars, algorithms to display a list in a certain order on a website or in a social media app, and facial recognition software to unlock a smart phone. It is part of our everyday lives, at work, in school and at home.

Machine Learning

Machine learning is a subfield of artificial intelligence, which is broadly defined as the capability of a machine to imitate intelligent human behavior. Artificial intelligence systems are used to perform complex tasks in a way that is similar to how humans solve problems.

Large Language Models

LLMs (Large Language Models) "can generate natural language texts from large amounts of data. Large language models use deep neural networks, such as transformers, to learn from billions or trillions of words, and to produce texts on any topic or domain. Large language models can also perform various natural language tasks, such as classification, summarization, translation, generation, and dialogue." (Maeda & Chaki, 2023)

Generative Pre-trained Transformer

GPT (Generative Pre-trained Transformer) "models give applications the ability to create human-like text and content (images, music, and more), and answer questions in a conversational manner." (What Is GPT AI?, n.d.)

Uses and Limitations

There are many LLMs available. Be sure to consider utilizing tools and services that exhibit the National Institute of Standards and Technology’s (NIST’s) characteristics of trustworthy AI. Here are a few LLMs examples:

  • ChatGPT
  • Consensus
  • DataSeer
  • GDELT Project
  • Hum
  • Prophy
  • Scholarcy 
  • SOMA
  • Writefull



  • It can be a starting place, but do not rely on it for factual information or research.
  • It is not a search engine, but uses vast amounts of data to generate responses that appear to make sense.
  • LLMs and AI are known for producing hallucinations, where the program presents and defends false information as if it were factual.
    • Most LLMs have created citations to defend its statements, but these citations can be entirely fabricated.
  • LLMs have access to knowledge up to a given date. You may ask the LLM when that date is, but it is best to go to the developer's notes, if available, to confirm whether its information is up to date.
  • LLMs are improving, but still provide false citations.
  • LLMs' privacy policies may allow the creators to sell and profit off of your personal information.
  • Submitting a manuscript to a LLM for writing assistance may violate requirements from journals you wish to publish in.
  • Anything you submit to an LLM may become a part of the LLM's learning corpus.
  • Discussion starter regarding privacy, intellectual property, research integrity, ethical consumption, and more!
Adapted from: University of Washington Health Sciences Library Guides: Artificial Intelligence

Use Caution

Citing AI and LLMs


Many journals have rules about whether AI and LLMs can be considered a co-author. Investigate the Author Guidelines for any journal in which you are considering publishing before using a LLM to revise or support your work.

Works Cited


Guidance for Use

Currently, Mercer University does not have an official policy regarding Artificial Intelligence .

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