In an academic
setting, violating copyright is called plagiarism.
intentionally presenting the work of another as one's own without proper
acknowledgement of the source, quoting from a source without citation, using
facts, figures, graphs, charts or information without acknowledgement of the
More examples of
- Purchasing a term paper online
- Using a former student's paper as your
- Failing to cite from a work even though you
didn't directly quote from it
plagiarising, always give proper recognition to the creator of the work.
- Diana Hacker Research and Documentation
guidelines along with examples by style for citing within your paper, creating
your bibliography, and formatting your paper.
- The Purdue Online Writing Lab
style guides, tips on avoiding plagiarism, and help with letter and resume
- Citing Sources
Documentation Guidelines for
citing sources and avoiding plagiarism from Duke University Libraries
grant creators exclusive rights to how their creation is used. A work is
protected from the "...time the work is created in a fixed form" . Some
examples are books, maps, charts, prints, photographs, music, drama, paintings,
drawings, sculpture, movies, computer programs, records and tapes, dance,
achitecture, and characters. (Copyright Basics, 2008, p.1- 3), (Samuels,
who supply photocopied materials to be placed on temporary reserve are advised
that it is their responsibility to obtain permission from the
Reserve Materials --
Reserve Materials --
information regarding copyright, visit the official website for the U.S.
Copyright Office at http://www.copyright.gov/
(2000). The illustrated story of copyright. New York: St. Martin's
Office. (2008). Copyright Basics. Washington DC: U.S. Government
The Copyright Act
gives copyright holders the exclusive right to reproduce works for a limited
time period. Fair use is a limitation on this right. Fair use allows
people other than the copyright owner to copy part or, in some circumstances,
all of a copyrighted work, even where the copyright holder has not given
permission or objects.
Whether a use is
fair will depend on the specific facts of the use. Note that attribution has
little to do with fair use; unlike plagiarism, copyright infringement (or
non-infringement) doesn't depend on whether you give credit to the source from
which you copied. Fair use is decided by courts on a case-by-case basis after
balancing the four factors listed in section 107 of the Copyright Act. Those
- The purpose and character of the use of
- Transformative quality - Is the
new work the same as the copyrighted work, or have you transformed the original
work, using it in a new and different way?
- Commercial or noncommercial -
Will you make money from the new work, or is it intended for nonprofit,
educational, or personal purposes? Commercial uses can still be fair uses, but
courts are more likely to find fair use where the use is for noncommercial
- The nature of the copyrighted
A particular use is more likely to be considered fair when the
copied work is factual rather than creative.
- The amount and substantiality of the
portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole
How much of
the copyrighted work did you use in the new work? Copying nearly all of the
original work, or copying its "heart," may weigh against fair use. But "how
much is too much" depends on the purpose of the second use. Parodies, for
example, may need to make extensive use of an original work to get the point
- The effect of the use upon the potential
market for or value of the copyrighted work
This factor applies even if
the original is given away for free. If you use the copied work in a way that
substitutes for the original in the market, that will weigh against fair use.
Uses of copyrighted material that serve a different audience or purpose are
more likely to be considered fair.
These factors are
guidelines, and they are not exclusive. As a general matter, courts are often
interested in whether or not the individual making use of a work has acted in
Use of the
electronic resources provided to Mercer University Libraries is governed by
license agreements. Each publisher's license agreement outlines specific terms
and conditions under which the resources may be used. Although each license is
unique, common restrictions found in licenses for electronic resources include
- The content may be used only for
non-commercial, educational or research purposes.
- Users may print or electronically save a
single copy of limited portions of a resource for individual and collaborative
scholarship, however, systematic downloading and/or redistribution to
non-subscribers is prohibited.
- Individuals who are not affiliated with the
University may not use the content, or may use the content only when physically
present in the Libraries. Affiliates are currently enrolled students, faculty
and staff of Mercer. Faculty include preceptors who have faculty appointments.
Alumni are not included at this time.
- Authorized Users may use a reasonable
portion of the Licensed Materials in the preparation of course packs or other
educational materials, including print-outs, e-reserves and access-controlled
websites, with all rights notices duly presented.
Systematic downloading of electronic journal articles or database
content is a violation of library contracts and US Copyright laws. Users who
violate this policy are at risk having their library access suspended and
access to the product blocked for all Mercer users on all